Mark Entry (7/27/2019)
Reviewed by (Mark Kuhn, Oceanside, CA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Order was great and easy to install,
Christian Standard Bible Review (3/10/2019)
Reviewed by (Bruce McElrath, Jacksonville, FL) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I have been using the Holman Christian Standard Bible for a few years now, and really enjoy this fresh translation. Recently our pastor, a former KJV-only zealot, has begun using and quoting from the CSB in his sermons. What a blessing for e-Study Source to have the CSB readily available.
While the differences between HCSB and CSB are minor, I find the word choices in the CSB to be more relevant to teens that I teach weekly.
Reviewed by (Kevin Harrison, Webster, Texas) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Why I Like the Christian Standard Bible (3/10/2019)
Reviewed by (Alvin Kenneth Chadwick, Waco, Texas) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This has been my bible of choice since it cane out several years ago. It was the first bible that I purchased from E study when they first offered it
for sale. When I stopped using window as my my preferred word processor I had to buy it again. It is scholarly yet very reader friendly. The older American
Standard version in the more closer to the Greek and Hebrew but the literalness
of makes it very hard to understand. The other modern english are easy to read but not accrete in my judgement as the CSB.
Great read (10/30/2018)
Reviewed by (Travis Congdon, Colorado Springs, Colorado) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I downloaded the CSB version as our new Pastor uses it. I like it, Not more for just reading which I use NKJV, but to help study and use it when I need to for our Pastor.
Excellent modern translation! (8/14/2018)
Reviewed by (Mike Powers, Woolwich, ME) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I recently downloaded the Christian Standard Bible (CSB) for e-Sword. I had not heard of the CSB before, and was interested to see if it is the right Bible for me. I am very impressed with it. The translation seems true to the ancient manuscripts, while rendering into highly readable modern-day English. I'm still praying about whether or not this is the Bible God wants me to use most of the time, but if it is, it will certainly be a constant joy for me read and study from.
Easy to read versionn of the Bible (8/14/2018)
Reviewed by (Marge Bras, Manteca, US +1) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I LOVE e-sword. One way I frequently use it is to look up Bible verses. The CSB is the version my church uses.I use it all the time to copy and paste verses directly from e-sword into presentations, newsletters, flyers, and even on Facebook--wherever I need to use a quote from the CSB or any of other versions of the Bible I have downloaded from e-sword.
Good but... (6/3/2018)
Reviewed by (Gabriel Chávez, Mexico, Mexico, Mexico) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
More gender neutral language. I prefer previous HCSB.
It's the Bible. As one who speaks some Hebrew and (6/3/2018)
Reviewed by (Robert Dawson, Shawnee, OK) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
It's the Bible. As one who speaks some Hebrew and has lived in Israel, I disagree I disapprove of the use of "Yahweh" for "Lord (small caps). This is a translation of God's holiest name for Himself and should never be pronounced. Apart from that the translation is OK.
Fills the gap (6/3/2018)
Reviewed by (Gary Greer, Little Rock, AR) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I have several bible versions. In recent times there have been a few reference made to CSB. It fills the gap in my set of bibles. I am a fan of NASB and this adds another version I can go to, maybe to help me understand better
Preparation for teaching Sunday School (6/3/2018)
Reviewed by (Robert Chaiholm, Minden, Louisiana) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I have found the e-sword bible study platform to be most valuable in my bible studies necessary to prepare for my responsibilities as teacher of a senior adult Sunday School class. By having access to various bible translations, dictionaries, and commentaries, with the ease of an electronic format, guide my students to a more complete, and accurate, understanding of God's word.
A very good daily translation. (4/16/2018)
Reviewed by (George Shrader, Brownsville, TX) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
After being a Christian for 67 years and studying God's Wonderful Word, I enjoy using many different versions to study from. The Holman versions, such as the CSB, are very good English study versions; however, I still prefer the old KJV. (I save 5 stars for the KJV) I'm not a "KJV Religionists," but I enjoy it's accuracy. All other versions seem to carry a copyright, which I try to steer away from, but the CSB is very close. Buy the CSB version and use it for your studies. You will enjoy it.
Where did it go? (4/16/2018)
Reviewed by (David Paro, Yonkers, New York) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
After a review of the CSB, one very big difference from the HCSB is the complete removal of Yahweh from the text.
In the latest e-Sword version of the HSCB, there are 654 occurrences of Yahweh, starting @ Gen 4.26 and the last in Mal 3.16.
Explanation of a sorts can be found here: https://csbible.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Translation-Decisions-QA.pdf
Call it what you like (12/15/2017)
Reviewed by (Stan Vos, Branson, Missouri) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I do Bible studies with inmates by mail and one mentioned he was using the Holman version so I downloaded it for future reference, the short time I have referenced it I found very little difference between it and the NIV.
Very useful Bible translation (12/15/2017)
Reviewed by (Donald Champ, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I use it regularly to lead Bible studies now.
Reviewed by (David Smith, Belvidere, IL) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
When I was a bi-vocational minister, I picked up E-Sword because I couldn't afford the high-dollar software packages that others were using. Now that I'm a full time Pastor of the fastest growing church in my area I still use E-Sword because I have found that it offers at least 80% of what the other software charge hundreds of dollars for. It has been an invaluable resource and has made me sound a lot smarter than I am on several occasions. I recently began purchasing the premium content (I have switched to the CSB and wanted to use it in E-Sword) and the purchasing and install was fast and flawless, and it felt good to support a company that has offered such a high-quality product for free for so many years.
Easy read - accurate (12/15/2017)
Reviewed by (John Quigley, Brackettville, Texas) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Have used this for study alongside the ESV and NKJV, have found it to be a very easy read and to be accurate when compared to the other two scriptures that I have used and continue to use in teaching and preaching. It is clear and concise and written in modern english, easier to read than the NIV.
I use my e-soward system during my out reach to in (12/15/2017)
Reviewed by (Stan Vos, Branson, MissouriI) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I use my e-soward system during my out reach to inmate Bible studies. And just reacently one said he was using the Holman Christian Study Bible so I purchased one for my system. I found it to be very similar at this point to the NIV.
Good resource (12/15/2017)
Reviewed by (Rodney Jenness, Lebanon, NH) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This version also considers the dynamic version and is literal when that is appropriate or dynamic when that is needed. I have the updated HCSB which is the CSB and there isn't much difference between them.
Beautiful translation (12/15/2017)
Reviewed by (Jean DeRoest, Caldwell, ID) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I am really. Enjoying this translation. It is very clear
E-sword, a Great Resource (10/15/2016)
Reviewed by (Don Gregory, Metropolis, IL) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I have used e-sword for years on my laptop and recently started using it with my iPad. E-sword has been a valuable resource preparing Sunday school lessons, personal Bible studies, devotionals and more recently preparing sermons I will use during a three week mission trip to Italy in November. The ease of using the copy and paste of scriptures into documents created for Bible studies conducted at my church has been so helpful. The ability to quickly search for words in the Bible as a concordance has seemed to breathe new life in my Bible studies.
Reviewed by (Ted Grier, Independence, MO) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Very good, easy to use and install, and works flawlessly. Indispensable for my Bible Study.
HCSB Bible (1/22/2016)
Reviewed by (David Mosley, Farmington, NM) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This is a good bible to use.I checked it against
the KJV bible and the NIV bible and found that it was a good bible to use.
KISS, 6th grade level reading (1/22/2016)
Reviewed by (JW Walker, Black Canyon City, AZ) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Holman Christian Standard Bible is easy to read and accurate. This makes it easy to study with, and to teach from, the language is clear.
Reviewed by (Edward Wright, Odenton, Maryland) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I enjoy reading this translation.
Gods Word (6/2/2015)
Reviewed by (Rita Walker, Houston, Texas) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I have used the KJV for 40 years and would never change. But one of my daughters sent Holman to her sister and I started reading it and just love this Bible. I wanted to buy it for my e-Sword because I use my e-Sword every day. I am so happy that I can now look up words on my Strongs on my e-Sword because the Strong's is really heavy and now that I am over 70 it makes it easier. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Josephus and now the Holman Christian Standard Bible is just so wonder of you all for doing this for Christ followers. All the maps that is on the e-Sword is just wonderful. Everything you have done I cannot thank you enough.
great study Bible (6/2/2015)
Reviewed by (Jay Campbell, Swansea, SC) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This is a must for e-Sword. The Holman Christian Standard Bible is a very good translation and I have their study Bible that I use for lessons at the local jail. (I am a chaplain there) e-Sword is the standard by which all electronic Bibles are judged and to date, none come close. As an ordained minister, e-Sword is my favorite tool for preparing lessons and vital in personal study. Without e-Sword my job would be much harder.
great translation (6/2/2015)
Reviewed by (Gene Mitchell, Lawrenceville, GA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This is a great transition, but I was expecting more notes and references for the e-sword app from my purchase. All you get from purchase is the transition itself.
Gave me new insight!!!! (1/6/2015)
Reviewed by (Scott Thompson, Wasilla, Alaska) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I bought a hard copy of the Holman Christian Standard Bible for my personal study and reading. Once I had it in hand and started using it regularly I knew that I had to add this translation to my e-sword site. I preach and teach from this version more than any other.
Reviewed by (Robert Creekbaum, Murfreesboro, TN) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
E-Sword has been very helpful for me as Sunday School Teacher and as a student in BSF Bible study program. BSF is currently a 9 year program and I couldn't do without my laptop and E-Sword. I would wish that you would come up with a version for android for tablets
A good source at times to clarify portions of KJV (10/29/2014)
Reviewed by (dan , , ) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
A good source at times to clarify portions of KJV that are difficult to understand, but KJV is still the Gold Standard of Bibles.
HCSC BIBLE (10/29/2014)
Reviewed by (PATRICIA STALWORTH, FAIRBURN, Georgia) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
It is a bible that speaks plainly and direct. Easy to understand and relate to every day life. I simply love it.
I have been using this version of the bible for years. I just decided to put it on my electronic devices. The references on my actual HCSB BIBLE are outstanding.
Great stuff (3/12/2014)
Reviewed by (Thomas Fairhall, Bowraville, NSW, Australia) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Great product well worth the money
Greatest Book Ever Written (12/31/2013)
Reviewed by (Jo Brazell, Rutledge, Alabama) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
There is no other book, that has love stories, action packed battles, miracles, devotion, betrayal, you name it, it's in the Bible, again it's the greatest books ever written, and as I said at the beginning, it a love story, but not just any love story, it's a love story of God's love for ME and YOU, from the beginning of time until the end of time as we know it. I can't get enough of it.
Fresh, useful translation (9/4/2013)
Reviewed by (Robert Harris, Tustin, California) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
The HCSB is great for a study Bible because it strives for accuracy (in the spirit of the NASB) as well as readability. Just one example is the translation of God's name in the OT. While almost every modern translation uses LORD as a substitute for the Hebrew, HCSB translates (literally) to Yahweh when the name of God is important to the context.
Translations are getting less euphemistic, and HCSB follows that movement. Genesis 19:5, KJV: Bring them out to us that we may know them, NASB: that we may have relations with them; HCSB: so we can have sex with them.
The HCSB also reflects more accurate translation scholarship, such as the translation of monogenous in John 1:14, so long mistranslated as "only begotten," when it means "one of a kind" or "one and only"--the latter being the HCSB choice.
For a good, reliable study Bible the HCSB is an excellent choice.
Quality reading (6/16/2013)
Reviewed by (Gabrielle Manser, New Plymouth, taranaki, New Zealand) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I tend to stay away from 'easy' reading bibles finding that often the depth and truth of scripture is somehow weakened. This certainly is not the case with the Holman version. While very pleasant to read it retains meaning and substance. It is still early days but I have great expectations of gaining a great deal from using this bible.
Easy but Accurate (5/8/2013)
Reviewed by (Roland Barklem, Carlisle, Cumbria, UK) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
The Holman Christian Standard Bible was introduced to me on taking up reading the Every Day with Jesus One Year Bible by Selwyn Hughes. I find the HCSB version to be a smooth and easy read but still appear to be as accurate a translation as the main popular Bible translations. Any modification to the wording compared to other popular translations provide a refreshing clarity to our understanding of the passage.
Great resource (4/30/2013)
Reviewed by (Johnny Cole, Seguin, TX) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
It is a great resource. As a Pastor I want to make our people not only hears the Word but understands the Word. I really enjoy reading it for me personally.
loved it (4/2/2013)
Reviewed by (phil wyrick, eldon, Missouri) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I loved the Holman Christian Standard Bible
Great alternative to the NIV (3/5/2013)
Reviewed by (Scott Denham, Shambaugh, IA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
As a pastor committed to biblical precision, my first choise on translation is the ESV, but as I familiarize myself with the HCSB, it's slightly less "formal" and--since the new NIV self destructed with ith gender neutral approach--the HCSB is probably the best choice for those needing a similar, less formal and dynamic equivial translation. Very readable and yet biblically accurate... I highly recommend it
Holman Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword (3/5/2013)
Reviewed by (Michael Morris, La Vergne, TN) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
HCSB is excellent.
Clear Sailing (2/19/2013)
Reviewed by (John Gregory, ball ground, GA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Great addition to my other translations. The HCSB is being used in our church.Therefore I wanted a copy to study along with our weekly lessons.So far I am very pleased with it's content.
Nice Translation (2/6/2013)
Reviewed by (Michael Walker, Ste Marthe sur le lac, Quebec, Canada) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I read a few translations at time, and it was nice to get this translation as well. I heard and read some good about it, and so far I am not dissapointed. Appreciate E-Sword, and the service they provide as well...
A Great Translation (7/16/2012)
Reviewed by (David Ungate, Chattanooga, Tennessee) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I had recently purchased the HCSB study Bible and have really enjoyed it. This is a great translation, and when I saw it available for the eSword program, I bought it. I use it just about everyday. The only thing I would like to see added is a way of referencing other relevant scriptures and word derivatives.
Excellent translation (7/16/2012)
Reviewed by (Jeremiah Aeschleman, Springfield, VA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This is my favorite translation for literal accuracy and readability, very similar to NIV. I'm glad eStudySource has this translation and I love eSwords workspace for my thoughts on scripture.
A gift from God (6/16/2012)
Reviewed by (Neal Metheny, Latham, NY) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Great Translation! Written for new disciples and mature Christians alike. I have had the product for a couple weeks and in that cpl weeks, I find myself back into that translation almost 100% of the time. eStudy has always had excellant service with my business over the years. Never a problem, even with having to reload my computer hard drive with all my previous purchases, eStudy makes it simple yet secure. This biz is a valuable asset to your journey with the Lord Jesus Christ! May God bless you all.
Reviewed by (Joshua Tanner, pineville, la) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I beleive that the HCSB is one of the closest to the origianal context and language. I aslo find it one of the easiest for me to study and comprehend.
A Great Translation (3/24/2012)
Reviewed by (Durante Pardue, Lancaster, SC) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
As a Minister, I have found The Holman Christain Standard Bible to be a very accurate Translation from the Hebrew and Greek, plus it is an easy read. I am thoroughly satisfied with it and use it often as a reference in my studies and sermons.
A good add-on (2/15/2012)
Reviewed by (John Drew, Dothan, Al.) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This add-on works with out a hitch. It is a great value in price and for study.
Reviewed by (Gerhard Gressman, Estill, SC) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
One tool that I use every day is my tablet computer. About two years ago I ran across e-Sword while surfing the internet. Since that time, e-Sword has turned into the single most important tool on my computer. Whether its research for sermons or looking up verses for school, e-Sword is always open. I use two monitors and when writing, one monitor has MS Word and the other has e-Sword. It is so convenient and easy to find bible passages and at the same time have access to commentaries. I send hours reading commentaries trying to obtain insight on bible verses. Looking up verses and reading what scholars have written is as easy as clicking a tab. I recently added the Holman Christian Standard Bible, HCSB, to my bible collections for e-Sword. The download was very easy and the HCSB was added to my bible tabs without a problem. I have the HCSB in hard cover and recently started using it for reading from the pulpit. I find the HCSB to be easily understood and very reliable. For many years I was a King James only person. Often people would be perplexed and not understand the meaning of the verses being read. With the HCSB the truth of God’s word is not lost in the words of the Bible. I recommend HCSB as a version that strives to be faithful and is very easily understood by everyone.
Great Product (12/6/2011)
Reviewed by (David Mumma, Payson, AZ) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I use E-sword daily in my Bible studies - for leading a church home group and assisting the Pastor. It is quick and easy, and in my estimation, is much better than the ones that have high cost. I find the Step reader invaluable, to read books from other sources. The program doesn't use a huge amount of computer resources, and the availability of so many study resources is amazing.
Thank you, E-sword and Rick Meyers!
Best Formal/Dynamic Equivalence Translation to Date! (11/22/2011)
Reviewed by (Mark Lingenfelter, North Fort Myers, FL) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
As a Pastor and the President of a cyberministry, I have for many years been seeking a "go to" Bible that was a bit more readable then the King James yet captured the same accuracy and poetry of the formal translation. However, I could never find a formal/dynamic or dynamic translation whose accuracy I trusted enough for my own daily reading and teaching - until the HCSB. While nothing can replace the KJV for thorough sermon and word studies (if for no other reason than the Strong's references), this is by far the best general use Bible I have found. I use the digital version for my e-Sword studies and the illustrated study print version for carrying around. Even my wife, who would only read the KJV for her personal study, has purchased one and now uses it as her personal study Bible. I highly recommend this translation, even for the most ardent KJVers.
Just a thought (10/10/2011)
Reviewed by (Joseph Roth, Marseilles, IL) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
Love the Bible and I am using it on occasion but I just have one caveat emptor in that some of the text is in bold and to me that's distracting. The problems for me with the bold is it takes away from the text surrounding the bold text. As I'm reading a chapter my eye naturally notices the text in bold and as I'm reading up to that section I'm distracted to the point where I have to re-read the non-bold text to get a proper context. Sometimes it's just a section of the verse other times its several verses.
If there's a non-bold version of the text I'd really like that version instead.
Easy to read and carefully accurate (10/10/2011)
Reviewed by (John Lotzgesell, Knoxville, TN) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I am so encouraged by the HCSB translation. I myself working with the American Bible Society have translated the entire Bible into another language so I know how hard it is to be both easy to read and accurate. The HCSB is one of the best ever in history. Thank God for their careful work.
Th awesome word of God (10/5/2011)
Reviewed by (Gus MacDonald, Hull, East Yorkshire, UK) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." John 1:1
Now with my Holman Christian Standard Bible loaded into the brilliant e-Sword Biblical study tool I can explore as much or as deeply as I want all the wonderful word of our Lord. I can compare the HSCB against other Bibles too (KJV, ASV, ESV ect). Whilst I have other Bibles too (KJV, NKJV, ESV, NIV) I find that the HCSB is very fluent to read & stays very close to the original wording as much as possible. Even the NKJV jars a little in modern English whilst I read it, and the ESV & NIV go a little too far in my mind in its choice of English that strays a little too much from the intended words of not only the KJV but also the original Greek manuscripts too. And of course too the words of Christ are highlighted in red for easy location too.
All in all the HCSB is a must for all serious Christians who want a choice of readable Bibles that flow well when read. Recommended.
Reviewed by (Timothy M, Newport News, VA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
eStudySource.com is a great company to purchase products from and e-Sword is a truly outstanding product for in-depth Bible study.
The HCSB is a good Bible version for ease of reading. I recommend it. I have to say, however, I prefer the NASB for serious study and usually read the ESV and NIV for ease of reading. Still, the HCSB is a sound Bible translation and I will be spending more time reading from it in the future.
Holman Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword PC (7/20/2011)
Reviewed by (Holly Burnell, Antioch, California) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
yes I love it to look at different ways to read the bible
(H)elp (C)an (S)tatify (B)elievers (6/13/2011)
Reviewed by (Mary Radke, Campo, CA) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I'm truly enjoying this HCSB Bible! So easy to understand & love to use it to compare with the other Bibles I've downloaded. A must have for all of us that are not proficient in understanding all the thees & thous. And e-Sword Is my favorite software! Thanks so much for making it available to all.
Excellent Readability & Trustworthy (6/4/2011)
Reviewed by (Bryan Hornsby, Independence, MO) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
I was introduced to this translation while at Seminary in KC, MO at Midwestern Baptist Theological, and it has proved the test of time. It is the ONLY translation I've come across that actually translates euaggelizo as "evangelize" in some cases including Acts 16:10, Rom 15:20, and 1 Cor 1:17. Another improvement is Luke 2:7 translated as "...and she wrapped Him snugly in cloth and laid Him in a feeding trough..." Traditionally the word "manger" has been used, but few people know what a manger is anymore. This is the only translation that keeps true to the text while making necessary improvements like this. One last detail is that it includes verses rediscovered using the Dead Sea Scrolls. For a long time it was thought that the acrostic Psalm 145 was missing a verse because the letter Nun was missing from the alphabetic pattern used to start each line. Well this line was discovered in the Dead Sea scrolls and included in the Holman Christian Standard version. Psalm 145:13b states "The LORD is faithful in all His words and gracious in all His actions." Which is a fitting conclusion for a review of this translation. God bless you as you seek His face.
Reads Like NIV, structure of ASV (6/1/2011)
Reviewed by (Brian Ingalls, Mountain View, MO) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
The HCSB version on e-sword reads as easily, or more easily, than the NIV, but a simple comparison also shows that quite often, the sentence structure mirrors that of the very accurate ASV version of 1908. In other words, the HCSB is a great Bible to read and quote, but it still seems to maintain a high level of accuracy. I'm loving it on my e-Sword.
awesome translation (5/30/2011)
Reviewed by (Kenny Tucker, charlotte, nc) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This translation is awesome, meaning, if there is anything I don't understand in KJV, I look first in this version to clarify or get an general idea, then I look in another translation to see if it's saying the same thing. I'm just starting out studying and I think it's a wonderful read; this version is easy to read.
Outstanding Translation (4/30/2011)
Reviewed by (Reagan Lynch, Fort Worth, TX) - Christian Standard Bible® for e-Sword
This modern translation is the most accurate translation I’ve come across. The HCSB is true to the Hebrew and the Greek text providing the most accurate translation. It is my primary text for lessons and sermons making it easy to explain biblical concepts and theology to the congregation. It also reads well in public readings.